Power & Infrastructure
Electric power industry
The electric power industry provides the production and delivery of electric energy, often known as power, or electricity, in sufficient quantities to areas that need electricity through a grid connection. The grid distributes electrical energy to customers. Electric power is generated by central power stations or by distributed generation. There are different ways to electrical power, Mainly Covalent focus on
- Wind Power
- Solar Power
- Energy Power
Infrastructure is basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise,or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. It can be generally defined as the set of interconnected structural elements that provide framework supporting an entire structure of development. It is an important term for judging a country or region's development.The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, bridges, water supply, sewers, electrical grids, telecommunications, and so forth, and can be defined as "the physical components of interrelated systems providing commodities and services essential to enable, sustain, or enhance societal living conditions.
- Road and highway networks, including structures (bridges, tunnels, culverts, retaining walls), signage and markings, electrical systems, edge treatments (curbs, sidewalks, landscaping), and specialized facilities such as road maintenance depots and rest areas,
- Mass transit systems (Commuter rail systems, subways, tramways, trolleys, City Bicycle Sharing system, City Car Sharing system and bus transportation)
- Railways, including structures, terminal facilities (rail yards, railway stations), level crossings, signalling and communications systems
- Canals and navigable waterways requiring continuous maintenance (dredging, etc.)
- Seaports and lighthouses
- Airports, including air navigational systems
- Bicycle paths and pedestrian walkways, including pedestrian bridges, pedestrian underpasses and other specialized structures for cyclists and pedestrians
- Electrical power network, including generation plants, electrical grid, substations, and local distribution.
- Natural gas pipelines, storage and distribution terminals, as well as the local distribution network.
- Petroleum pipelines, including associated storage and distribution terminals. Some definitions may include the oil wells, refineries, as well as the fleets of tanker ships and trucks.
- Specialized coal handling facilities for washing, storing, and transporting coal. Some definitions may include Coal mines.
- Steam or hot water production and distribution networks for district heating systems.
- Electric vehicle networks for charging electric vehicles.
- Coal mines, oil wells and natural gas wells may be classified as being part of the mining and industrial sector of the economy, not part of infrastructure.
Water management infrastructure
- Drinking water supply, including the system of pipes, storage reservoirs, pumps, valves, filtration and treatment equipment and meters, including buildings and structures to house the equipment, used for the collection, treatment and distribution of drinking water
- Sewage collection, and disposal of waste water
- Drainage systems (storm sewers, ditches, etc.)
- Major irrigation systems (reservoirs, irrigation canals)
- Coastal management, including structures such as seawalls, breakwaters, groynes, floodgates.
- Postal service, including sorting facilities
- Telephone networks (land lines) including telephone exchange systems
- Mobile phone networks
- Television and radio transmission stations, including the regulations and standards governing broadcasting
- Cable television physical networks including receiving stations and cable distribution networks
- The Internet, including the internet backbone, core routers and server farms, local internet service providers as well as the protocols and other basic software required for the system to function
- Communications satellites
- Undersea cables
- Major private, government or dedicated telecommunications networks, such as those used for internal communication and monitoring by major infrastructure companies, by governments, by the military or by emergency services, as well as national research and education networks
- Pneumatic tube mail distribution networks
Solid waste management
- Municipal garbage and recyclables collection
- Solid waste landfills
- Solid waste incinerators and plasma gasification facilities
- Materials recovery facilities
- Hazardous waste disposal facilities
Types of soft infrastructure:
Soft infrastructure includes both physical assets such as highly specialized buildings and equipment, as well as non-physical assets such as the body of rules and regulations governing the various systems, the financing of these systems, as well as the systems and organizations by which highly skilled and specialized professionals are trained, advance in their careers by acquiring experience, and are disciplined if required by professional associations (professional training, accreditation and discipline).
- The system of government and law enforcement, including the political, legislative, law enforcement, justice and penal systems, as well as specialized facilities (government offices, courthouses, prisons, etc)
- Emergency services
- Military infrastructure
- The financial system, including the banking system, financial institutions, the payment system, exchanges, the money supply, financial regulations, as well as accounting standards and regulations
- Major business logistics facilities and systems, including warehouses as well as warehousing and shipping management systems
- Manufacturing infrastructure,
- Agricultural, forestry and fisheries infrastructure, including specialized food and livestock transportation and storage facilities
- To the health care system
- To the educational and research system
- To the Social welfare systems
Cultural, sports and recreational infrastructure
Sports and recreational infrastructure, such as parks, sports facilities, the system of sports leagues and associations
- Cultural infrastructure, such as concert halls, museums, libraries, theatres, studios (film studios and recording studios), and specialized training facilities
- Business travel and tourism infrastructure